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AIDA model of marketing communication

AIDA model of marketing communication

This is a detailed article on the AIDA model of marketing communication. AIDA stands for Awareness/Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. It is a powerful tool used by many companies around the world to establish strong relationships with their target audience. It can help them build brand awareness, increase customer engagement, drive sales, and maximise customer loyalty.


Components of the AIDA model of marketing communication

The AIDA model was developed long time ago by American businessman and advertising advocate Elias St. Elmo Lewis. It is a useful tool that can be used to analyse marketing strategies and campaigns. It is designed to help businesses increase their sales by focusing on the customers’ journey towards purchase and providing a memorable experience at each stage.


The AIDA model is based on the idea that people go through a four-step process when they are exposed to marketing communications: first, they notice the ad or message; then they become interested in the product or service; then they develop a desire to purchase or use it; and finally, they take actions and make a purchase.


By understanding the stages of the model, marketers can create more effective marketing communication strategies that engage customers and drive sales. The model has been used by many companies which attest to its effectiveness.



The first step in the AIDA model of marketing communication is to grab the attention of the target audience. This can be done through a variety of methods, including using eye-catching visuals, an interesting headline, or an engaging story.


In this stage, people get information about a product or service from different sources such as advertisements, reviews, testimonials, and recommendations from friends and family.


To ensure that the message stands out from the competition, marketers need to create an attention-grabbing ad or message that is unique and stands out from the rest. They also should focus on delivering the message in a creative way that is relevant to the target audience.



The purpose of the second step in the AIDA model of marketing communication is to generate customers’ interest in the product or service. This can be done through various methods, such as providing information about the benefits of the product or highlighting its unique features.


Additionally, marketers can use storytelling techniques to create an emotional connection with the target audience and make them more interested in the product/service.



After getting enough information about the product, the customers develop a desire for it and feel that they must own the product. The goal of this step for marketers is to make the audience feel a need for the product/service, and to make them believe that it will be beneficial for them.


Marketers should use persuasive language and highlight the unique features of the product/service to help create a strong desire for it which will push buyers to the next stage.



This is the last stage of the AIDA model of marketing communication. The goal is to get the target audience take actions and make a purchase. This can be done by providing a clear call to action, such as ‘Buy now’ or ‘Sign up today’. The action stage is the ultimate goal of all marketing and advertising activities (OUP, 2022).


Additionally, marketers should use a sense of urgency to get the audience to make a decision without any unnecessary delay. For example, they can use phrases such as ‘Act now’ or ‘Limited time offer’.


It is very important to make sure that the purchasing process is easy and convenient. This helps the audience make a purchase without going through any significant difficulty that would otherwise have discouraged them to continue with the purchasing decision.


Benefits of using the AIDA model of marketing communication

The AIDA model offers several significant benefits to companies. It helps them increase brand awareness, drive sales, maximise customer loyalty, and improve customer satisfaction. It is not just a theoretical concept, rather it is a real marketing method that has been proven successful over time.


The AIDA model ensures that a company’s marketing message is delivered at the right time to the right audience. It helps marketing professionals, advertisers, and sales executives better understand customer buying behaviour and decision making (Indeed, 2022).


Criticisms of the AIDA model of marketing communication

One of the most significant criticisms of the AIDA model is that it has a limited scope. It does not consider various factors that may interfere with the process. Likewise, absence of post-purchase effects and linear nature are also problematic.


Although the model has been extremely successful in the past, some researchers have modified it by adding other steps into it such as Like/Dislike, Share, and Love/Hate after Action, and Search after Interest.


List of variations of the AIDA model

Basic model (AIDA): Awareness → Interest → Desire → Action


AIDAS: Attention → Interest → Desire → Action → Satisfaction


AISDALSLove: Awareness → Interest → Search → Desire → Action → Share → Love/Hate


AICEDPRLA: Awareness → Interest → Consideration → Evaluation → Decision → Purchase → Repeat → Loyalty →  Advocacy



The AIDA model is a powerful marketing tool that has been used by leading brands for decades. By understanding its four steps and leveraging its power, marketers can create effective marketing communications that engage customers and drive sales.


However, it has, like all other models and theories, several limitations that need to be considered as well. Therefore, different variations (shown above) have been developed over the years.


We hope you like this article: ‘AIDA model of marketing communication’. Please share the article link on social networking sites to support us. You may also like reading:


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Last update: 12 January 2023


Indeed (2022) What is the AIDA model and how does it help sales? Available at: (accessed 22 December 2022)

OUP (2022) AIDA, available at:  (accessed 22 December 2022)

Author: M Rahman

M Rahman writes extensively online and offline with an emphasis on business management, marketing, and tourism. He is a lecturer in Management and Marketing. He holds an MSc in Tourism & Hospitality from the University of Sunderland. Also, graduated from Leeds Metropolitan University with a BA in Business & Management Studies and completed a DTLLS (Diploma in Teaching in the Life-Long Learning Sector) from London South Bank University.

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